Egypt is home to one of the richest and most ancient civilizations in the world extending to several millennia BC It was the Pharaoh Menes who united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, inaugurating what came to be known as the Ancient Empire (3200-2270 BC).
Ramses II is another Pharaoh who deserves mentioning. He ruled from 1279 to 1212 BC and is known for his prodigious buildings, rising temples, statues and other monuments throughout Egypt. Among his major achievements was the signing of the first Peace Treaty to be recorded in history, concluded between Egypt and the Hitites.
Another great Pharaoh is Akhnaton who reigned from 1379 to 1362 BC. He was originally called Amenophis IV, but changed his name in honor of Aten, the Sun God. Akhnaton is considered to have heralded the concept of monotheism in the history of religion.
Alexander the Great arrived to Egypt in the late autumn of 332 BC. He founded Alexandria in 331 BC as a gateway to his motherland, Greece. Alexandria became a major center for trading. Its Library became a cultural center that made an important contribution to civilization.